American states mandating that the value of pi is 4

With licensing, it can be attained by legislation (or, in rare cases, by court decisions), eliminating the requirement that an individual must have a license to practice the occupation in question.

For the latter case, we have elected to use the term “de-licensing.” We believed that we had coined a new term, but the word “delicense” is sometimes used (although rarely) to refer to the process of depriving a person of a license to practice an occupation because of, for example, unethical behavior or malpractice.

Unions and occupational licensing share several common characteristics.

For example, both unions and occupational licensing have had roughly equal effects on relative wages, at least on average, with effects in the 10- to 15-percent range, as H. Lewis first estimated several decades ago for unions and Morris Kleiner and Alan Krueger most recently observed for occupational licensing.

We also analyze the sources, motivations, and mechanisms behind such efforts.

In addition to de-licensing, we further analyze several highly publicized cases of reductions in the scope of licensure, as well as recent state-level attempts to de-license collectively certain groups of occupations.

Furthermore, the proportions of the labor force represented by unions and by licensing (their “densities”) at their peaks have been roughly equal at 30 percent.

Of course, the big difference here is that union density peaked nearly 50 years ago and has been falling since, while licensing density continues to rise.

If so, how sizable are these effects and how rapidly would they occur?The point is that union decertification in the private sector, while certainly not common, is by no means rare.On the other hand, attempts (successful or otherwise) to eliminate occupational licensing are seldom encountered.The National Association of Barber Schools (NABS) (which no longer exists) formerly published annual reports listing the various barber licensing requirements for all states.According to its reports, in the early 1970s, Alabama was the only state without a barber licensing law, although the NABS data also indicated that “some Alabama counties had barber laws.” Effective in 1973, the Alabama legislature passed a licensing law that required barbers hereafter to have completed 1,500 hours of barber school instruction and obtained a minimum of 12 years of formal education.

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